In recent weeks, debate over the policy of castration as a form of punishment for sex offenders has emerged in Indonesia. The controversy was driven by severe acts of sexual harassment across the country. Recently, several intoxicated men raped and killed a Junior High School student in Bengkulu Province, and a young woman from Tangerang city was found dead after being sexually assaulted by several youth. As a response to the incidents, President Joko Widodo proposed that castration be introduced as a potential sentence to punish perpetrators further, and to have a deterrence effect upon others.
Jean D. Castration of men and males of other species was almost certainly the first experiment in endocrinology if not in zoology , and the literature on the subject is vast. Indeed, the Cumming Manuscript Collection of the New York Academy of Medicine Library contains more than references, abstracts, and documents concerning the early history of human castration 1. In antiquity the procedure was performed for several reasons, including as punishment for prisoners of war 2 , and by the time of Aristotle in the fourth century BC the physiological consequences of male castration were understood with remarkable exactitude 3. Birds have their testicles inside, and oviparous quadrupeds close to the loins; and of viviparous animals that walk some have them inside, and most have them outside, but all have them at the lower end of the belly. Birds are castrated at the rump at the part where the two sexes unite in copulation. If you burn this twice or thrice with hot irons, then, if the bird be full-grown, his crest grows sallow, he ceases to crow, and forgoes sexual activity; but if you castrate the bird when young, none of these male attributes or propensities will come to him as he grows up.
Castration also known as orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical , chemical , or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles : the male gonad. Surgical castration is bilateral orchidectomy excision of both testes , and chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization preventing the castrated person or animal from reproducing ; it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones , such as testosterone. Surgical castration in animals is often called neutering.
The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. Eunuchs would usually be servants or slaves who had been castrated to make them reliable servants of a royal court where physical access to the ruler could wield great influence. Similar instances are reflected in the humble origins and etymology of many high offices.